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Game Theory

TagLast edit: 1 Oct 2020 23:14 UTC by Ruby

Game theory is the formal study of how rational actors interact to pursue incentives. It investigates situations of conflict and cooperation.

See also: Coalition/​coordination, Coalitional Instincts, Decision theory, Moloch, Utility functions, Decision Theory, Prisoner’s Dilemma

Game theory is an extremely powerful and robust tool in analyzing much more complex situations, such as: mergers and acquisitions, political economy, voting systems, war bargaining and biological evolution. Eight game-theorists have won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.

References

In­tro­duc­tion to Game The­ory: Se­quence Guide

Scott Alexander28 Jun 2012 3:32 UTC
67 points
6 comments1 min readLW link

Eight Short Stud­ies On Excuses

Scott Alexander20 Apr 2010 23:01 UTC
540 points
237 comments10 min readLW link

Book Re­view—The Ori­gins of Un­fair­ness: So­cial Cat­e­gories and Cul­tural Evolution

Zack_M_Davis21 Jan 2020 6:28 UTC
27 points
5 comments1 min readLW link
(unremediatedgender.space)

Moloch games

Chris van Merwijk16 Oct 2020 15:19 UTC
74 points
5 comments4 min readLW link

Book re­port: The­ory of Games and Eco­nomic Be­hav­ior (von Neu­mann & Mor­gen­stern)

Nisan11 May 2020 9:47 UTC
38 points
4 comments6 min readLW link

The Pavlov Strategy

sarahconstantin20 Dec 2018 16:20 UTC
208 points
13 comments4 min readLW link
(srconstantin.wordpress.com)

Thomas C. Schel­ling’s “Strat­egy of Con­flict”

cousin_it28 Jul 2009 16:08 UTC
125 points
154 comments2 min readLW link

Con­trite Strate­gies and The Need For Standards

sarahconstantin24 Dec 2018 18:30 UTC
120 points
5 comments4 min readLW link
(srconstantin.wordpress.com)

“Zero Sum” is a mis­nomer.

abramdemski30 Sep 2020 18:25 UTC
106 points
35 comments6 min readLW link

Player of Games

Jacob Falkovich29 Aug 2018 21:26 UTC
52 points
3 comments12 min readLW link

Game The­ory As A Dark Art

Scott Alexander24 Jul 2012 3:27 UTC
111 points
103 comments13 min readLW link

Pri­son­ers’ Dilemma with Costs to Modeling

Scott Garrabrant5 Jun 2018 4:51 UTC
111 points
20 comments7 min readLW link

The Dark Mir­a­cle of Optics

Suspended Reason24 Jun 2020 3:09 UTC
26 points
5 comments8 min readLW link

Schel­ling fences on slip­pery slopes

Scott Alexander16 Mar 2012 23:44 UTC
433 points
204 comments6 min readLW link

Nash Equil­ibria and Schel­ling Points

Scott Alexander29 Jun 2012 2:06 UTC
92 points
82 comments7 min readLW link

Back­ward Rea­son­ing Over De­ci­sion Trees

Scott Alexander30 Jun 2012 3:17 UTC
129 points
58 comments4 min readLW link

In­tro­duc­tion to Pri­son­ers’ Dilemma

Scott Alexander30 Jun 2012 0:54 UTC
50 points
6 comments5 min readLW link

Bar­gain­ing and Auctions

Scott Alexander15 Jul 2012 17:01 UTC
51 points
72 comments8 min readLW link

Anti-so­cial Punishment

Martin Sustrik27 Sep 2018 7:08 UTC
227 points
64 comments6 min readLW link

Fair Divi­sion of Black-Hole Ne­gen­tropy: an In­tro­duc­tion to Co­op­er­a­tive Game Theory

Wei_Dai16 Jul 2009 4:17 UTC
52 points
37 comments2 min readLW link

[Link] A gen­tle video in­tro­duc­tion to game the­ory

[deleted]13 Dec 2011 8:52 UTC
46 points
9 comments8 min readLW link

Most Pri­soner’s Dilem­mas are Stag Hunts; Most Stag Hunts are Schel­ling Problems

abramdemski14 Sep 2020 22:13 UTC
123 points
31 comments10 min readLW link

The Dar­win Game

lsusr9 Oct 2020 10:19 UTC
88 points
136 comments3 min readLW link

The True Pri­soner’s Dilemma

Eliezer Yudkowsky3 Sep 2008 21:34 UTC
128 points
115 comments4 min readLW link

Speak­ing Truth to Power Is a Schel­ling Point

Zack_M_Davis30 Dec 2019 6:12 UTC
50 points
17 comments2 min readLW link

Funk-tunul’s Le­gacy; Or, The Le­gend of the Ex­tor­tion War

Zack_M_Davis24 Dec 2019 9:29 UTC
13 points
6 comments4 min readLW link

For­mal Open Prob­lem in De­ci­sion Theory

Scott Garrabrant29 Nov 2018 3:25 UTC
34 points
11 comments4 min readLW link

The Ubiquitous Con­verse Law­vere Problem

Scott Garrabrant29 Nov 2018 3:16 UTC
21 points
0 comments2 min readLW link

Hyper­real Brouwer

Scott Garrabrant29 Nov 2018 3:15 UTC
30 points
0 comments6 min readLW link

Co­or­di­na­tion Prob­lems in Evolu­tion: The Rise of Eukaryotes

Martin Sustrik15 Oct 2018 6:18 UTC
46 points
8 comments8 min readLW link

[Question] How to avoid Schel­ling points?

cwg1g1614 May 2020 19:37 UTC
27 points
9 comments1 min readLW link

Con­flict vs. mis­take in non-zero-sum games

Nisan5 Apr 2020 22:22 UTC
139 points
37 comments2 min readLW link

Med­i­ta­tions On Moloch

Scott Alexander30 Jul 2014 4:00 UTC
70 points
7 comments47 min readLW link

Clas­sify­ing games like the Pri­soner’s Dilemma

philh4 Jul 2020 17:10 UTC
79 points
24 comments6 min readLW link
(reasonableapproximation.net)

In Log­i­cal Time, All Games are Iter­ated Games

abramdemski20 Sep 2018 2:01 UTC
78 points
8 comments5 min readLW link

Two Co­or­di­na­tion Styles

abramdemski7 Feb 2018 9:00 UTC
38 points
14 comments7 min readLW link

Real World Solu­tions to Pri­son­ers’ Dilemmas

Scott Alexander3 Jul 2012 3:25 UTC
58 points
88 comments7 min readLW link

In­ter­lude for Be­hav­ioral Economics

Scott Alexander6 Jul 2012 20:12 UTC
78 points
51 comments6 min readLW link

What Is Sig­nal­ing, Really?

Scott Alexander12 Jul 2012 17:43 UTC
124 points
174 comments6 min readLW link

Im­perfect Vot­ing Systems

Scott Alexander20 Jul 2012 0:07 UTC
49 points
90 comments6 min readLW link

Mo­ral­ity as Parfi­tian-filtered De­ci­sion The­ory?

SilasBarta30 Aug 2010 21:37 UTC
31 points
273 comments8 min readLW link

What counts as defec­tion?

TurnTrout12 Jul 2020 22:03 UTC
80 points
20 comments5 min readLW link

Sec­tions 1 & 2: In­tro­duc­tion, Strat­egy and Governance

JesseClifton17 Dec 2019 21:27 UTC
33 points
5 comments14 min readLW link

Sec­tions 3 & 4: Cred­i­bil­ity, Peace­ful Bar­gain­ing Mechanisms

JesseClifton17 Dec 2019 21:46 UTC
19 points
2 comments12 min readLW link

Sec­tions 5 & 6: Con­tem­po­rary Ar­chi­tec­tures, Hu­mans in the Loop

JesseClifton20 Dec 2019 3:52 UTC
27 points
4 comments10 min readLW link

Sec­tion 7: Foun­da­tions of Ra­tional Agency

JesseClifton22 Dec 2019 2:05 UTC
14 points
3 comments8 min readLW link

Moloch Hasn’t Won

Zvi28 Dec 2019 16:30 UTC
141 points
38 comments7 min readLW link3 nominations1 review
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Quotes from Mo­ral Mazes

Zvi30 May 2019 11:50 UTC
85 points
27 comments53 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

The Costly Co­or­di­na­tion Mechanism of Com­mon Knowledge

Ben Pace15 Mar 2018 20:20 UTC
158 points
30 comments19 min readLW link

The Schel­ling Choice is “Rab­bit”, not “Stag”

Raemon8 Jun 2019 0:24 UTC
126 points
53 comments12 min readLW link2 nominations3 reviews

Strate­gic ig­no­rance and plau­si­ble deniability

Kaj_Sotala10 Aug 2011 9:30 UTC
57 points
58 comments4 min readLW link

From Per­sonal to Pri­son Gangs: En­forc­ing Proso­cial Behavior

johnswentworth24 Jan 2019 18:07 UTC
127 points
24 comments5 min readLW link2 nominations2 reviews

Pareto im­prove­ments are rarer than they seem

philh27 Jan 2018 22:23 UTC
28 points
14 comments3 min readLW link
(reasonableapproximation.net)

Co­op­er­at­ing with agents with differ­ent ideas of fair­ness, while re­sist­ing exploitation

Eliezer Yudkowsky16 Sep 2013 8:27 UTC
72 points
45 comments4 min readLW link

In praise of heuristics

Bucky24 Oct 2018 15:44 UTC
39 points
27 comments7 min readLW link

Mea­sures, Risk, Death, and War

Vaniver20 Dec 2011 23:37 UTC
17 points
14 comments8 min readLW link

Kin­naird’s truels

Johnicholas5 Mar 2009 16:50 UTC
28 points
35 comments1 min readLW link

A Prob­lem About Bar­gain­ing and Log­i­cal Uncertainty

Wei_Dai21 Mar 2012 21:03 UTC
45 points
49 comments1 min readLW link

A di­a­gram for a sim­ple two-player game

Paul Crowley10 Nov 2013 8:59 UTC
56 points
6 comments1 min readLW link

The Dar­win Game—Rounds 1 to 2

lsusr11 Nov 2020 1:53 UTC
48 points
9 comments3 min readLW link

Spe­cial­ized La­bor and Coun­ter­fac­tual Compensation

philh14 Nov 2020 18:13 UTC
18 points
2 comments19 min readLW link
(reasonableapproximation.net)

The Mu­tant Game—Rounds 11 to 30

lsusr23 Nov 2020 9:20 UTC
5 points
3 comments5 min readLW link

The Mu­tant Game—Rounds 31 to 90

lsusr27 Nov 2020 21:05 UTC
18 points
1 comment1 min readLW link

What is a VNM sta­ble set, re­ally?

Nisan25 Jan 2021 5:43 UTC
14 points
0 comments7 min readLW link

Mo­dal Bar­gain­ing Agents

orthonormal16 Apr 2015 22:19 UTC
5 points
0 comments5 min readLW link

Con­fu­sions re: Higher-Level Game Theory

Diffractor2 Jul 2021 3:15 UTC
28 points
5 comments9 min readLW link

Hyper­games 101

Josephine23 Jul 2021 13:19 UTC
11 points
0 comments2 min readLW link

Pri­soner’s Dilemma Tour­na­ment Results

prase6 Sep 2011 0:46 UTC
149 points
171 comments11 min readLW link

Out to Get You

Zvi23 Sep 2017 10:50 UTC
70 points
9 comments6 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Less Com­pe­ti­tion, More Mer­i­toc­racy?

Zvi20 Jan 2019 2:00 UTC
84 points
19 comments20 min readLW link2 nominations3 reviews
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

The Dar­win Results

Zvi25 Nov 2017 13:30 UTC
45 points
10 comments5 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Sim­plified Poker

Zvi4 Jun 2018 15:50 UTC
41 points
17 comments1 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

2014 iter­ated pris­oner’s dilemma tour­na­ment results

tetronian230 Sep 2014 21:23 UTC
94 points
57 comments6 min readLW link

Pavlov Generalizes

abramdemski20 Feb 2019 9:03 UTC
64 points
4 comments7 min readLW link

Does the US nu­clear policy still tar­get cities?

landfish2 Oct 2019 0:18 UTC
58 points
7 comments10 min readLW link

Sim­plified Poker Conclusions

Zvi9 Jun 2018 21:50 UTC
59 points
2 comments5 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

On Robin Han­son’s Board Game

Zvi8 Sep 2018 17:10 UTC
49 points
15 comments17 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

The Dar­win Game

Zvi15 Nov 2017 23:20 UTC
35 points
17 comments3 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Let’s Read: Su­per­hu­man AI for mul­ti­player poker

Yuxi_Liu14 Jul 2019 6:22 UTC
56 points
6 comments8 min readLW link

The Dar­win Pregame

Zvi21 Nov 2017 1:10 UTC
34 points
6 comments5 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Buri­dan’s ass in co­or­di­na­tion games

jessicata16 Jul 2018 2:51 UTC
52 points
26 comments10 min readLW link

Your Price for Joining

Eliezer Yudkowsky26 Mar 2009 7:16 UTC
63 points
58 comments4 min readLW link

Re­duc­ing col­lec­tive ra­tio­nal­ity to in­di­vi­d­ual op­ti­miza­tion in com­mon-pay­off games us­ing MCMC

jessicata20 Aug 2018 0:51 UTC
59 points
12 comments7 min readLW link

The Soli­taire Prin­ci­ple: Game The­ory for One

alkjash17 Jan 2018 0:14 UTC
24 points
8 comments9 min readLW link
(radimentary.wordpress.com)

Towards op­ti­mal play as Villager in a mixed game

Benquo7 May 2019 5:29 UTC
50 points
40 comments3 min readLW link
(benjaminrosshoffman.com)

Di­plo­macy as a Game The­ory Laboratory

Scott Alexander12 Nov 2010 22:19 UTC
63 points
98 comments12 min readLW link

Sim­plified Poker Strategy

Zvi6 Jun 2018 11:10 UTC
40 points
0 comments2 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Even Odds

Scott Garrabrant12 Jan 2014 7:24 UTC
62 points
47 comments3 min readLW link

Some Ways Co­or­di­na­tion is Hard

Zvi13 Jun 2019 13:00 UTC
53 points
13 comments10 min readLW link2 nominations2 reviews
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

“Backchain­ing” in Strategy

Davis_Kingsley9 Feb 2018 12:01 UTC
15 points
17 comments1 min readLW link

Mixed strat­egy Nash equilibrium

Meni_Rosenfeld16 Oct 2010 16:00 UTC
57 points
47 comments4 min readLW link

Black­mail, Nukes and the Pri­soner’s Dilemma

Stuart_Armstrong10 Mar 2010 14:58 UTC
25 points
20 comments2 min readLW link

Let’s split the cake, length­wise, up­wise and slantwise

Stuart_Armstrong25 Oct 2010 13:15 UTC
74 points
29 comments4 min readLW link

Mechanism De­sign: Con­struct­ing Al­gorithms for Strate­gic Agents

badger30 Apr 2014 18:37 UTC
65 points
14 comments9 min readLW link

De­ci­sion Auc­tions aka “How to fairly as­sign chores, or de­cide who gets the last cookie”

daenerys21 Jan 2014 21:13 UTC
53 points
59 comments3 min readLW link

The Epistemic Pri­soner’s Dilemma

MBlume18 Apr 2009 5:36 UTC
62 points
46 comments2 min readLW link

Blame games

Benquo6 May 2019 2:38 UTC
44 points
13 comments7 min readLW link
(benjaminrosshoffman.com)

Nash equil­ibriums can be ar­bi­trar­ily bad

Stuart_Armstrong1 May 2019 14:58 UTC
34 points
24 comments2 min readLW link

UDT as a Nash Equilibrium

cousin_it6 Feb 2018 14:08 UTC
18 points
17 comments1 min readLW link

Front Row Center

Zvi11 Jun 2018 13:50 UTC
30 points
12 comments2 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

Moloch and multi-level selection

thoughtfulmadison11 Aug 2020 7:08 UTC
19 points
3 comments3 min readLW link

AI co­op­er­a­tion is already stud­ied in academia as “pro­gram equil­ibrium”

cousin_it30 Jul 2012 15:22 UTC
58 points
44 comments1 min readLW link

[Question] A way to beat su­per­ra­tional/​EDT agents?

Abhimanyu Pallavi Sudhir17 Aug 2020 14:33 UTC
5 points
13 comments1 min readLW link

Tak­ing the awk­ward­ness out of a Prenup—A Game The­o­retic solution

VijayKrishnan22 May 2010 0:45 UTC
41 points
112 comments4 min readLW link

The Cry­on­ics Strat­egy Space

Froolow24 Apr 2014 16:11 UTC
40 points
47 comments8 min readLW link

You Play to Win the Game

Zvi30 Aug 2018 14:10 UTC
24 points
5 comments2 min readLW link
(thezvi.wordpress.com)

De-Cen­ter­ing Bias

Chris_Leong18 Oct 2017 23:24 UTC
14 points
10 comments2 min readLW link

Nega­tive “eeny meeny miny moe”

jefftk20 Aug 2019 2:48 UTC
25 points
6 comments1 min readLW link

The Power of Noise

jsteinhardt16 Jun 2014 17:26 UTC
47 points
80 comments11 min readLW link

Split-a-Dol­lar Game

Martin Sustrik24 Aug 2020 4:54 UTC
27 points
0 comments2 min readLW link

[Question] Inac­cessible finely tuned RNG in hu­mans?

Sandi7 Oct 2020 17:04 UTC
22 points
13 comments1 min readLW link

Allow­ing Ex­ploita­bil­ity in Game Theory

Liam Goddard17 May 2020 23:19 UTC
2 points
4 comments2 min readLW link

Play­ing the Meta-game

Technologos25 Dec 2009 10:06 UTC
30 points
47 comments2 min readLW link

The Dar­win Game—Rounds 0 to 10

lsusr24 Oct 2020 2:17 UTC
107 points
34 comments4 min readLW link

The Dar­win Game—Round 1

lsusr29 Oct 2020 21:56 UTC
58 points
10 comments1 min readLW link

Fair­ness vs. Goodness

Eliezer Yudkowsky22 Feb 2009 20:22 UTC
15 points
21 comments1 min readLW link

Precom­mit­ting to pay­ing Omega.

topynate20 Mar 2009 4:33 UTC
5 points
33 comments7 min readLW link

Two rea­sons to ex­pect a peace­ful change of power in the US

rockthecasbah8 Nov 2020 17:13 UTC
11 points
5 comments2 min readLW link

When Hind­sight Isn’t 20/​20: In­cen­tive De­sign With Im­perfect Credit Allocation

johnswentworth8 Nov 2020 19:16 UTC
61 points
21 comments6 min readLW link

Ex­tor­tion beats brinks­man­ship, but the au­di­ence matters

Stuart_Armstrong16 Nov 2020 21:13 UTC
27 points
15 comments4 min readLW link

[Question] Is there a defini­tive in­tro to pun­ish­ing non-pun­ish­ers?

pjeby31 Oct 2019 20:20 UTC
23 points
10 comments1 min readLW link

The Monty Maul Problem

JGWeissman24 Jun 2009 5:30 UTC
7 points
5 comments2 min readLW link

Sleep­ing Beauty gets coun­ter­fac­tu­ally mugged

Stuart_Armstrong26 Mar 2009 11:44 UTC
4 points
34 comments2 min readLW link

Notes on Fairness

David_Gross7 Dec 2020 18:52 UTC
18 points
4 comments7 min readLW link

The Dar­win Game—Conclusion

lsusr4 Dec 2020 8:06 UTC
92 points
30 comments2 min readLW link

Freaky Fairness

cousin_it25 Jul 2009 8:14 UTC
14 points
36 comments3 min readLW link

Hermione Granger and New­comb’s Paradox

lsusr14 Dec 2020 5:27 UTC
45 points
18 comments2 min readLW link

The “Com­mit­ment Races” problem

Daniel Kokotajlo23 Aug 2019 1:58 UTC
95 points
34 comments5 min readLW link1 nomination

[LINK] The P + ep­silon At­tack (Precom­mit­ment in cryp­toe­co­nomics)

DanielVarga29 Jan 2015 2:02 UTC
32 points
22 comments2 min readLW link

Pri­soner’s Dilem­mas : Altru­ism :: Bat­tles of the Sexes : Convention

michaelcohen1 Feb 2021 10:39 UTC
11 points
4 comments4 min readLW link

Notes on Schel­ling’s “Strat­egy of Con­flict” (1960)

MichaelA10 Feb 2021 2:48 UTC
21 points
9 comments8 min readLW link

Don’t en­courage pris­on­ers dilemmas

Yair Halberstadt16 Feb 2021 6:33 UTC
8 points
7 comments2 min readLW link

The Pro­to­typ­i­cal Ne­go­ti­a­tion Game

johnswentworth20 Feb 2021 21:33 UTC
74 points
13 comments5 min readLW link

An­a­lyz­ing Mul­ti­player Games us­ing IMPACT

midco2 Apr 2021 19:10 UTC
10 points
3 comments9 min readLW link

Iden­ti­fi­a­bil­ity Prob­lem for Su­per­ra­tional De­ci­sion Theories

Bunthut9 Apr 2021 20:33 UTC
17 points
16 comments2 min readLW link

Paper re­view: A Cryp­to­graphic Solu­tion to a Game The­o­retic Problem

victorsintnicolaas24 Apr 2021 11:54 UTC
23 points
4 comments6 min readLW link

The Schel­ling Game (a.k.a. the Co­or­di­na­tion Game)

jchan3 May 2021 14:31 UTC
20 points
12 comments3 min readLW link

Game-the­o­retic Align­ment in terms of At­tain­able Utility

8 Jun 2021 12:36 UTC
16 points
2 comments9 min readLW link

Reflec­tion of Hier­ar­chi­cal Re­la­tion­ship via Nuanced Con­di­tion­ing of Game The­ory Ap­proach for AI Devel­op­ment and Utilization

Kyoung-cheol Kim4 Jun 2021 7:20 UTC
2 points
2 comments9 min readLW link

Gam­ing Incentives

Jozdien29 Jul 2021 13:51 UTC
10 points
4 comments6 min readLW link

[Question] Open prob­lem: how can we quan­tify player al­ign­ment in 2x2 nor­mal-form games?

TurnTrout16 Jun 2021 2:09 UTC
22 points
59 comments1 min readLW link

Progress on Causal In­fluence Diagrams

tom4everitt30 Jun 2021 15:34 UTC
60 points
4 comments9 min readLW link
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