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Spaced Repetition

TagLast edit: 16 Sep 2020 0:12 UTC by Ruby

Spaced Repetition is a technique for long-term retention of learned material where instead of attempting to memorize by ‘cramming’, memorization can be done far more efficiently by instead spacing out each review, with increasing durations as one learns the item, with the scheduling done by software.

See Also: Scholarship & Learning

The case for Spaced Repetition

A good place to learn more about Spaced Repetition is Spaced Repetition for Efficient Learning by Gwern:

Spaced repetition is a centuries-old psychological technique for efficient memorization & practice of skills where instead of attempting to memorize by ‘cramming’, memorization can be done far more efficiently by instead spacing out each review, with increasing durations as one learns the item, with the scheduling done by software. Because of the greater efficiency of its slow but steady approach, spaced repetition can scale to memorizing hundreds of thousands of items (while crammed items are almost immediately forgotten) and is especially useful for foreign languages & medical studies.

The key insight for why spaced repetition should be effective is that you forget things approximately hyperbolically—reviewing things very soon (as in cramming-style learning) is ineffective because you have not forgotten much yet when you come to a review. In comparison, Spaced Repetition allows you to renew your knowledge precisely as you’re about to forget a given fact, giving the review the maximum return-on-investment possible and (over time) flattening the ‘forgetting curve’ so that the interval between successive reviews gets progressively larger for a given fact.

Obviously, it’s not possible to remind yourself of something precisely when you’re about to forget it. Enter Spaced Repetition Software (SRS)! By using the forgetting curve, SRS is able to plan when you need to review each item. You can either create decks yourself, or (for some topics) download from databases. Anki and Mnemnosyne are two popular free options, and SuperMemo is a subscription-based choice.

Criticisms

Criticisms of Spaced Repetition primarily revolve around the fact that, for it to be effective, knowledge has to be broken down into individual ‘pieces’ to go onto cards for testing. This is difficult or impossible for some types of knowledge, and may not promote an integrated view, where the structure or hierarchy of the knowledge is clear, as well as other methods. More can be found in the post A Vote Against Spaced Repetition.

Resources

Supermemo material

Spaced Repetition Decks

Decks (links, or for Anki, the names of a deck in the Anki collection) relevant to LW.

SR cards for LessWrong Sequences

Other Spaced Repetition Software

A Gen­tle In­tro­duc­tion on How to Use Anki to Im­prove Your Memory

simbyotic4 Feb 2021 9:59 UTC
11 points
1 comment14 min readLW link

Spaced rep­e­ti­tion re­view (my en­try)

gwern8 Aug 2011 15:48 UTC
28 points
2 comments1 min readLW link

Seven Years of Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion Soft­ware in the Classroom

tanagrabeast4 Mar 2021 2:42 UTC
212 points
36 comments34 min readLW link

You Can Now Embed Flash­card Quizzes in Your LessWrong posts!

spencerg19 Apr 2021 13:44 UTC
43 points
23 comments4 min readLW link

A vote against spaced repetition

ancientcampus10 Mar 2014 19:27 UTC
78 points
74 comments2 min readLW link

My Anki patterns

agentydragon26 Nov 2019 6:27 UTC
51 points
15 comments5 min readLW link

A Year of Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion Soft­ware in the Classroom

tanagrabeast4 Jul 2015 22:30 UTC
170 points
26 comments13 min readLW link

Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion Database for the Mys­te­ri­ous An­swers to Mys­te­ri­ous Ques­tions Sequence

divia25 Jun 2010 1:08 UTC
58 points
58 comments1 min readLW link

Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion Database for A Hu­man’s Guide to Words

divia10 Jan 2011 0:21 UTC
48 points
38 comments1 min readLW link

Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion liter­a­ture re­view prize: And the win­ner is...

jsalvatier19 Aug 2011 20:35 UTC
37 points
25 comments1 min readLW link

Self-pro­gram­ming through spaced repetition

[deleted]25 May 2011 0:02 UTC
35 points
16 comments2 min readLW link

[prize] Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion liter­a­ture review

jsalvatier7 Jun 2011 3:28 UTC
26 points
35 comments1 min readLW link

Me­mory, Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion and Life

Duke10 Jun 2011 0:07 UTC
21 points
31 comments6 min readLW link

How I use Anki to learn mathematics

ArthurRainbow7 Dec 2016 22:29 UTC
32 points
12 comments7 min readLW link

Anki on Mac in 60 seconds

lukeprog19 Mar 2011 6:53 UTC
8 points
17 comments1 min readLW link

A Se­cond Year of Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion Soft­ware in the Classroom

tanagrabeast1 May 2016 22:14 UTC
65 points
30 comments21 min readLW link

Knowl­edge ready for Ankification

lukeprog2 Feb 2012 18:58 UTC
22 points
47 comments1 min readLW link

Les­sons I’ve Learned from Self-Teaching

TurnTrout23 Jan 2021 19:00 UTC
216 points
58 comments9 min readLW link

[Question] Spaced Rep­e­ti­tion Sys­tems for In­tu­itions?

Alex Ray28 Jan 2021 17:23 UTC
19 points
4 comments1 min readLW link

[Question] Flash­cards for AI Safety?

Søren Elverlin14 May 2019 14:37 UTC
5 points
3 comments1 min readLW link

ANKI flash­card deck: Cog­ni­tive Bi­ases and Re­lated Terms

Duke22 May 2011 1:33 UTC
10 points
5 comments1 min readLW link

Anki (Me­moriza­tion Soft­ware) for Beginners

ArthurRainbow14 Jan 2020 1:55 UTC
7 points
5 comments1 min readLW link

Anki deck for Cog­ni­tive Science in One Lesson

jsalvatier16 Aug 2011 16:23 UTC
8 points
6 comments1 min readLW link

Anki Library

atucker8 Aug 2011 5:00 UTC
6 points
3 comments1 min readLW link

Another Anki deck for Less Wrong content

MondSemmel22 Aug 2013 19:31 UTC
25 points
5 comments1 min readLW link

Two Anki plu­g­ins to re­in­force re­view­ing (up­dated)

D_Malik3 Dec 2012 22:04 UTC
17 points
16 comments2 min readLW link

Ad­vanced Anki (Me­moriza­tion Soft­ware)

ArthurRainbow14 Jan 2020 2:25 UTC
4 points
0 comments1 min readLW link

Pro­posal: Com­mu­nity Cu­rated Anki Decks For MIRI Recom­mended Courses

iconreforged7 May 2014 18:48 UTC
9 points
16 comments3 min readLW link

Is there an Anki Deck available for Cog­ni­tive Neuroscience

diegocaleiro14 Jun 2011 9:26 UTC
9 points
1 comment1 min readLW link

LessWrong Wiki as Anki deck

mapnoterritory5 Sep 2012 21:11 UTC
12 points
8 comments1 min readLW link

Alter­nate card types for Anki

DavidLS29 Mar 2012 7:11 UTC
11 points
7 comments1 min readLW link

Want to help me test my Anki deck cre­ation skills?

atucker22 Jan 2013 22:12 UTC
17 points
33 comments1 min readLW link

Is there an au­to­matic Chrome-to-Anki-2 ex­ten­sion or solu­tion?

Mark_Eichenlaub16 Jan 2013 5:26 UTC
8 points
31 comments1 min readLW link

A con­cise ver­sion of “Twelve Virtues of Ra­tion­al­ity”, with Anki deck

[deleted]12 Sep 2013 2:38 UTC
3 points
17 comments3 min readLW link

Learn­ing how to learn

Neel Nanda30 Sep 2020 16:50 UTC
24 points
0 comments15 min readLW link
(www.neelnanda.io)

A Work­flow with Spaced Repetition

Emile3 Nov 2013 15:58 UTC
13 points
16 comments4 min readLW link

Pro­gres­sive High­light­ing: Pick­ing What To Make Into Flashcards

AllAmericanBreakfast29 Mar 2021 22:57 UTC
48 points
4 comments3 min readLW link

SRS advice

Dr_Manhattan10 May 2011 20:49 UTC
9 points
16 comments1 min readLW link

Ra­tion­al­ist horo­scopes: A low-hang­ing util­ity gen­er­a­tor.

AdeleneDawner22 May 2011 9:37 UTC
78 points
80 comments2 min readLW link

Anki decks by LW users

Pablo2 Apr 2013 17:50 UTC
43 points
60 comments1 min readLW link

Inoc­u­lat­ing against Psychedelic Woo

MikkW21 Aug 2020 5:54 UTC
8 points
11 comments6 min readLW link

[Question] If there were an in­ter­ac­tive soft­ware teach­ing Yud­kowskian ra­tio­nal­ity, what con­cepts would you want to see it teach?

MikkW2 Sep 2020 5:37 UTC
25 points
22 comments1 min readLW link

Cheat codes

sketerpot1 Dec 2010 21:19 UTC
49 points
93 comments1 min readLW link

I want a bet­ter mem­ory.

alexflint2 Apr 2011 11:36 UTC
23 points
29 comments1 min readLW link

Anki on An­droid in 60 seconds

lukeprog17 Mar 2011 22:47 UTC
17 points
25 comments1 min readLW link

Book Re­view: How Learn­ing Works

whales19 Jan 2014 20:45 UTC
57 points
16 comments17 min readLW link

Learn­ing Optimization

Bound_up28 Apr 2015 1:26 UTC
14 points
19 comments1 min readLW link

CrowdAnki com­pre­hen­sive JSON rep­re­sen­ta­tion of Anki Decks to fa­cil­i­tate col­lab­o­ra­tion

harcisis18 Sep 2016 10:59 UTC
15 points
2 comments1 min readLW link

Anki deck for bi­ases and fallacies

phob12 Jan 2011 15:34 UTC
25 points
7 comments1 min readLW link

Learn­ing How to Learn (And 20+ Stud­ies)

maxa23 Nov 2020 0:29 UTC
19 points
5 comments6 min readLW link

Us­ing spaced rep­e­ti­tion to make the most out of blog posts and books

timot.cool21 Dec 2020 2:47 UTC
7 points
0 comments3 min readLW link

[Question] For those who ad­vo­cate Anki

jmh31 Jan 2021 0:01 UTC
19 points
14 comments1 min readLW link

Us­ing Flash­cards for De­liber­ate Practice

AllAmericanBreakfast12 Apr 2021 19:07 UTC
20 points
5 comments3 min readLW link
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