[Question] What is the evidence for productivity benefits of weightlifting?

[Mod Note: This ques­tion re­ceived an an­swer that seemed worth cu­rat­ing. See the an­swer by LW user hereisone­hand for the cu­ra­tion no­tice]

I’ve been weightlift­ing for a while, and I’ve heard vaguely good things about it’s effect on pro­duc­tivity, like a gen­eral in­crease in en­ergy lev­els. A re­cent quick google search ses­sion came up empty. If some­one looks into the liter­a­ture and finds some­thing in­ter­est­ing I’ll pay a $50 prize.*

As­sume the time hori­zon is <5 years. I’d pre­fer an­swers fo­cus pre­dom­i­nantly on pro­duc­tivity benefits. Effects on car­dio­vas­cu­lar could be part of an anal­y­sis, but would not qual­ify on their own. If the ev­i­dence is for some­thing clearly linked to pro­duc­tivity, like sleep, I’d count that. In­tro­spec­tive ev­i­dence will also not qual­ify. Com­par­i­sons to other forms of ex­er­cise would be es­pe­cially in­ter­est­ing. As­sume a healthy in­di­vi­d­ual, al­though I’m at least some­what in­ter­ested in effects on in­di­vi­d­u­als with de­pres­sion or anx­iety given their prevalence.

*Prize to go to best an­swer, as judged by me, if there are any that meet some min­i­mal thresh­old of rigor, also as judged by me.