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Dual Pro­cess The­ory (Sys­tem 1 & Sys­tem 2)

TagLast edit: 2 Aug 2020 20:41 UTC by Kaj_Sotala

Dual Pro­cess The­ory posits two types of pro­cesses in the hu­man brain. Ac­cord­ing to one char­ac­ter­i­za­tion, Type 2 (also known as Sys­tem 2) pro­cesses are those which re­quire work­ing mem­ory, and Type 1 (also known as Sys­tem 1) are those which not.

The terms Sys­tem 1 and Sys­tem 2 were origi­nally coined by the psy­chol­o­gist Keith Stanovich and then pop­u­larized by Daniel Kah­ne­man in his book Think­ing, Fast and Slow. Stanovich noted that a num­ber of fields within psy­chol­ogy had been de­vel­op­ing var­i­ous kinds of the­o­ries dis­t­in­guish­ing be­tween fast/​in­tu­itive on the one hand and slow/​de­liber­a­tive think­ing on the other. Often these fields were not aware of each other. The S1/​S2 model was offered as a gen­eral ver­sion of these spe­cific the­o­ries, high­light­ing fea­tures of the two modes of thought that tended to ap­pear in all the the­o­ries.
Since then, aca­demics have con­tinued to dis­cuss the mod­els. Among other de­vel­op­ments, Stanovich and other au­thors have dis­con­tinued the use of the Sys­tem 1/​Sys­tem 2 ter­minol­ogy as mis­lead­ing, choos­ing to in­stead talk about Type 1 and Type 2 pro­cess­ing. [...] there’s no sin­gle “Sys­tem 1”: rather, a wide va­ri­ety of differ­ent pro­cesses and sys­tems are lumped to­gether un­der this term. It is also un­clear whether there is any sin­gle Sys­tem 2, ei­ther. [...]
Peo­ple some­times re­fer to Type 1 rea­son­ing as bi­ased, and to Type 2 rea­son­ing as un­bi­ased. But [...] there is noth­ing that makes one of the two types in­trin­si­cally more or less bi­ased than the other. The bias-cor­rec­tion power of Type 2 pro­cess­ing emerges from the fact that if Type 1 op­er­a­tions are known to be er­ro­neous and a rule-based pro­ce­dure for cor­rect­ing them ex­ists, a Type 2 op­er­a­tion can be learned which im­ple­ments that rule.
-- Kaj So­tala, Against “Sys­tem 1” and “Sys­tem 2″

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