Productivity as a function of ability in theoretical fields
I argued in this post that the differences in capability between different researchers are vast (Kaj Sotala provided me with some interesting empirical evidence that backs up this claim). Einstein’s contributions to physics or John von Neumann’s contributions to mathematics (and a number of other disciplines) are arguably at least hundreds of times greater than that of an average physicist or mathematician.
At the same time, Yudkowsky argues that “in the space of brain designs” the difference between the village idiot and Einstein is tiny. Their brains are extremely similar, with the exception of some “minor genetic tweaks”. Hence we get the following picture: