[Question] How much fraud is there in academia?

Quinn wrote a while ago “I heard a pretty haunting take about how long it took to discover steroids in bike races. Apparently, there was a while where a “few bad apples” narrative remained popular even when an ostensibly “one of the good ones” guy was outperforming guys discovered to be using steroids.”

I have been thinking about that notion after researching BPC 157 where it seems that the literature around it is completely fraudulent.

How do you think about the issue of how much of the literature is fraudulent?