I think the key question is how much policy-caused variance in the outcome there is.

That is, juice can chain onto itself because we assume there will be a bunch of scenarios where reinforcement-triggering depends a lot on the choices made. If you are near a juice but not in front of the juice, you can walk up to the juice, which triggers reinforcement, or you can not walk up to the juice, which doesn’t trigger reinforcement. The fact that these two plausible actions differ in their reinforcement is what I am referring to with “policy-caused variance”.

If you are told not to kill someone, then you can usually stay sufficiently far away from killing anyone, in such a way that the variance in killing is 0, because killing itself has a constant value of 0. (Unlike juice-drinking which might have a value of 0 or 1, depending on both scenario and actions.)

But you could also have a case with a positive value that fails to be robust/lasting, if the positive value fails to have variance. One example would be if the positive value is bounded and always achieved; for instance you might imagine that if you are always carrying a juice dispenser, juice-drinking would always have a value of 1, and therefore again there wouldn’t be any variance to reinforce seeking juice.

A more subtle point is that if the task is too difficult, e.g. if you are in a desert with no juice available, then the policy-caused variance is also 0, because the juice is constant 0. This is a general point that encompasses many failures of reinforcement learning. Often, if you don’t do things like reward shaping, then reinforcement learning simply fails, because the task is too complex to learn.

I think future RL algorithms will be able to succeed using less policy-caused variance than present RL algorithms require by using models to track the outcomes through many layers of interactions.

I think the key question is how much policy-caused variance in the outcome there is.

That is, juice can chain onto itself because we assume there will be a bunch of scenarios where reinforcement-triggering depends a lot on the choices made. If you are near a juice but not in front of the juice, you can walk up to the juice, which triggers reinforcement, or you can not walk up to the juice, which doesn’t trigger reinforcement. The fact that these two plausible actions differ in their reinforcement is what I am referring to with “policy-caused variance”.

If you are told not to kill someone, then you can usually stay sufficiently far away from killing anyone, in such a way that the variance in killing is 0, because killing itself has a constant value of 0. (Unlike juice-drinking which might have a value of 0 or 1, depending on both scenario and actions.)

But you could also have a case with a positive value that fails to be robust/lasting, if the positive value fails to have variance. One example would be if the positive value is bounded and always achieved; for instance you might imagine that if you are always carrying a juice dispenser, juice-drinking would always have a value of 1, and therefore again there wouldn’t be any variance to reinforce seeking juice.

A more subtle point is that if the task is too difficult, e.g. if you are in a desert with no juice available, then the policy-caused variance is also 0, because the juice is constant 0. This is a general point that encompasses many failures of reinforcement learning. Often, if you don’t do things like reward shaping, then reinforcement learning simply fails, because the task is too complex to learn.

I think future RL algorithms will be able to succeed using less policy-caused variance than present RL algorithms require by using models to track the outcomes through many layers of interactions.

Further exposition: Price’s equation for neural networks.