[Question] What makes a scientific fact ‘ripe for discovery’?

The ex­is­tence of mul­ti­ple dis­cov­ery seems to sug­gest that there are cer­tain fac­tors that make sci­en­tific facts ready to be dis­cov­ered. What are these, fac­tors, and how could one mea­sure them?

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