Yes, there are possible minds that do math/logic/deduction differently. Most of these logically possible minds perform even worse than humans in these aspects, and would die out.
In this universe, if one wishes to reach ones goals, one has to choose to (try to) do math/logic/deduction in the correct way; the way that delivers results. What works is determined by the laws of physics and logic that in our universe seem quite coherent and understandable (to a degree, at least).
There’s no reason to be skeptical about whether I actually have some goals/preferences. And since I assume that I have some preferences, I have a need to conform to the correct way of doing math/logic/deduction, which is determined by what seems a rather coherent physical universe.